Strategic Planning and Competitive Advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya: IntroductionAccording to Raduan, Jegak, Haslinda and Alimin (2009), a business that does something that is distinctive and difficult to replicate is competitive advantage and is likely to be more profitable than its rivals. Pearce and Robinson, 2011; Schwenk and Shrader , 1993; Raduan et al. 2009) assert that from a resource-based view, strategic planning can result in strategic change which may increase strategy-environment fit, hence can become a source of sustained competitive advantage especially when strategic planning system improves flow of products and services between manufacturers and users.
Metcalfe, Ramlogan and Uyarra (2003) argue that competitiveness is embodied in the characteristics of the firm namely; (a) the current efficiency and effectiveness of the use of resources; (b) the willingness and the ability to relate profitability to growth of capacity (c) the ability to innovate to improve technology and organisation and thus improve efficiency and effectiveness.

The scholars aver that entrepreneurship and the introduction of new productive combinations and innovation is the driving force that continually creates new competitive advantages and opportunities for profit and growth and that it is up to the SMEs to implement competitive business operating practices and business strategies.
The internationalisation of economy, the frequent and uncertain change, the greater competition among firms, the need for continuous innovations, and the growing use of information technologies force companies to face the challenge of improving their competitiveness. These difficulties are greater for SMEs because their economies of scale and their resources are less than those of large firms. Pralahad and Hamel (1990) emphasised the link between core competencies and competitiveness of an organization. While, Wernerfelt, (1984) asserts that high performance of SME is explained primarily by the strength of a firm’s resources, and not by the strength of its market position.