Encouraging Political Participation: Political participation involves actions through

which ordinary citizens influence or attempt to influence political outcomes. The potential benefits to citizens from political participation are threefold: instrumental or utilitarian, developmental or educative, and intrinsic or consumptive. For utilitarians such as Bentham and James Mill political participation serves a specific function: To ensure that government maximizes aggregated citizen utility or welfare. While acknowledging the contribution of participation to efficient government, Rousseau and John Stuart Mill stress the role political participation can play in protecting citizen liberties. Through participation no one individual or group is master over any other. Finally, for Aristotle, Rousseau, J. S. Mill, de Tocqueville, and contemporary commentators such as John Dewey, political participation serves important communitarian values (Frug 1980). By participating in the political process an individual learns that his private interests are intimately linked to the interests of others, leading to a willingness to compromise, to put private interests aside, and to call upon values of justice and common good when making public and private choices. Electronic Payday Loans Online

The federal form of government, giving an important policy role to local jurisdictions, may encourage participation. In small governments, each vote is more likely to be pivotal to the policy outcome, access to politicians is likely to be easier, and information about politicians’ activities is likely to be more readily available. Smaller governments are likely to give each individual citizen more political influence over outcomes, and increased political influence is likely to stimulate increased individual political effort and participation.