The Objectives of a Federal Constitution

Constitutions establish the rules for collective decision-making: who is allowed to participate, what is to be decided, and how those decisions are to be reached and enforced. The unique contribution of a federal constitution is to allow for multiple layers of governments, each with a domain of policy responsibilities. In setting the number and layers of governments and in drawing their exclusive and mutual responsibilities, three objectives for government are commonly mentioned: the guarantee of personal, political, and economic rights; the encouragement of political participation; and the promotion of the efficient allocation of economic resources. Electronic Payday Loans Online

Protecting Rights’. Personal, political, and economic rights define the domains of individual liberty. Liberty may be either negative or positive (Berlin 1958). Negative liberty ensures that individuals are free from interference of others in certain choices and actions; positive liberty guarantees each individual an ability to make certain choices or to perform certain actions. Religious rights, voting rights, free speech, and property rights are examples of protecting negative liberties. A right to minimal subsistence and shelter, to education, or to health care provide protection for our positive liberties. Governments in turn protect rights and the constitution defines how that role will be exercised. Specification of a Bill of Rights joined with a credible and independent judiciary is perhaps the most important institutional guarantor of individual rights. Separation of powers between branches of the central government joined with credible checks and balances across those branches offers further protection. Federalism is a possible third line of defense.